Another characteristic of critical thinking identified by many sources is metacognition. Metacognition is thinking about one's own thinking.
Critical Thinking > History (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
In the book, Critical Thinking, Beyer elaborately explains what he sees as essential aspects of critical thinking. These are:. Through technology, the amount of information available today is massive.
This information explosion is likely to continue in the future. Students need a guide to weed through the information and not just passively accept it. As mentioned in the section, Characteristics of Critical Thinking , critical thinking involves questioning. It is important to teach students how to ask good questions, to think critically, in order to continue the advancement of the very fields we are teaching. Beyer sees the teaching of critical thinking as important to the very state of our nation.
He argues that to live successfully in a democracy, people must be able to think critically in order to make sound decisions about personal and civic affairs. If students learn to think critically, then they can use good thinking as the guide by which they live their lives. Benjamin S. Addison-Wesley Pub.
An updated exposition of the model. Knowledge - Knowledge is defined as the remembering of previously learned material. This may involve the recall of a wide range of material, from specific facts to complete theories, but all that is required is the bringing to mind of the appropriate information.
Knowledge represents the lowest level of learning outcomes in the cognitive domain. Illustrative General Instructional Objectives Knows common terms. Knows specific facts. Knows methods and procedures.
Knows basic concepts. Knows principles. Illustrative Verbs for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes Defines, describes, identifies, labels, lists, matches, names, outlines, reproduces, selects, states. Comprehension - Comprehension is defined as the ability to grasp the meaning of material. This may be shown by translating material from one form to another words or numbers , by interpreting material explaining or summarizing, and by estimating future trends predicting consequences or effects.
These learning outcomes go one step beyond simple remembering of material, and represent the lowest level of understanding. Illustrative General Instructional Objectives Understands facts and principles. Interprets verbal material. Interprets charts and graphs. Translates verbal material to mathematical formulas.
Bloom's Taxonomy and Beyond
Estimates consequences implied in data. Justifies methods and procedures. Illustrative Verbs for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes Converts, defends, distinguishes, estimates, explains, extends, generalises, gives examples, infers, paraphrases, predicts, rewrites, summarizes. Application - Application refers to the ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations. This may include the application of such things as rules, methods, concepts, principles, laws, and theories. Learning outcomes in this area require a higher level of understanding than those of comprehension.
Illustrative General Instructional Objectives Applies principles to new situations. Applies theories to practical situations. Solves mathematical problems.
Constructs charts and graphs. Demonstrates correct usage of a procedure. Illustrative Verbs for Stating Specific Learning Outcomes Changes, computes, demonstrates, discovers, manipulates, modifies, operates, predicts, prepares, produces, relates, shows, solves, uses. Analysis - Analysis refers to the ability to break down material into its component parts so that its organizational structure may be understood. This may include the identification of the parts, analysis of the relationship between parts, and recognition of the organizational principles involved.
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Learning outcomes here present a higher intellectual level than comprehension and application because they require an understanding of both the content and structural form of the material. Illustrative General Instructional Objectives Recognises unstated assumptions. Recognises logical fallacies in reasoning. Distinguishes between facts and inferences. Evaluates the relevancy of data.